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Exodus

Exodus Bible Study Notes


Overview of Exodus

Exodus, meaning “departure,” is the second of the five books written by Moses. Genesis ends with the death of Joseph and Exodus begins some 400 years later in the lifetime of Moses with the Israelites as slaves in Egypt. (The problems associated with dating when the Exodus occurred is discussed below.)

Genesis begins with the account of the creation of the world. It then “fast forwards” to the time of Abraham, only mentioning in the passing events of enormous importance that occurred in the intervening years. Genesis gives the account of the Lord’s promises to Abraham together with his son, and grandson. We again lose track of significant historical events for some 400 years until we reach the time of Moses.

Exodus tells the story of how through the prophet Moses the Israelites gained their freedom from the Egyptians. Also, it begins the account of the journey to the land of Canaan, which was promised to Abraham as a place where his posterity could dwell.

Dating the Exodus

Unfortunately we do not know with certainty how much time elapsed between the lives of these men. The Hebrew text indicates 430 years while the Septuagint states 215 years, half the time given in the Hebrew.

Many scholars believe that Jacob (Israel) and his posterity began their sojourn in Egypt during the reign of the Hyksos kings. The Hyksos were a Semitic people from the north and east of Egypt who would naturally be more sympathetic to the Israelites than the Egyptians.

The ancient historian Manetho called the Hyksos the shepherd-kings. He described how their conquest and rule was greatly hated by the Egyptians.

Exodus 1:8-10Exodus 1:8-10
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

8 Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph. 9 And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we: 10 Come on, let us deal wisely with them; lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up out of the land.  

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which states, “Now there arose a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph. And he said unto his people, Behold the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we: Come on, let us deal wisely with them; least they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our enemies…” is usually considered to mean a new dynasty arose and we do not know how long after the death of Joseph this happened. These verses show the fear of the Israelites and a reason for their oppression. It is easy to see how any monuments and reference to Joseph may have been effaced after the fall of the Hyksos. It is also easy to see how the position of the Israelites changed from rulers (civil-servants) to labors (slaves).

Dating the departure of Israelites from Egypt and determining who was the Pharaoh in Exodus cannot be done with certainty. Manetho, the ancient historian, states that Moses left Egypt during the reign of Amasis (Amosis) the Theban prince who drove the Hyksos Kings out of Egypt at the beginning of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Moses would have been about forty years of age at this time, and it appears the persecution of the Israelites had been going on for a longer period of time than Manetho’s account allows unless the Israelites became laborers before the reign of the Hyksos ended.

The length of time the Israelites dwelt in Egypt is unclear. As stated above, various ancient Biblical texts are not in agreement regarding certain dates. In the Samaritan text (one of the oldest Biblical texts) Exodus 12:40-41Exodus 12:40-41
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

40 Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years. 41 And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the LORD went out from the land of Egypt.  

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reads:

Now the sojourning of the children of Israel and of their fathers, which they sojourned in the land of Canaan and in the land of Egypt was 430 years.

Most Biblical texts differ, and the more common account of these verses is used in the King James Version of Exodus 12:40Exodus 12:40
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

40 Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.  

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:

Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt was 430 years.

In Galatians 3:16-18Galatians 3:16-18
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

16 Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ. 17 And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect. 18 For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise: but God gave it to Abraham by promise.  

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, Paul seems to indicate that it was 430 years from the time Abraham received the covenant to the Exodus. Paul, of course, studied to become a Pharisee under Gamaliel (Acts 22:3Acts 22:3
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

3 I am verily a man which am a Jew, born in Tarsus, a city in Cilicia, yet brought up in this city at the feet of Gamaliel, and taught according to the perfect manner of the law of the fathers, and was zealous toward God, as ye all are this day.  

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) the foremost scholar of his day and Paul was his star pupil. Paul probably had access to both written and oral history now lost to the world and his opinion in such matters should not be dismissed lightly.

Since the duration of the sojourn in Egypt is unclear, another possible way of dating the Exodus is to compute the date backwards in time. First Kings 6:1 says it was 480 years from the Exodus until the fourth year of Solomon’s reign.

Unfortunately, this verse is not viewed literally by all scholars, especially those who believe Ramses II was the pharaoh of Exodus. They think the 480 years is obtained by multiplying the number of judges, 12, by 40, which was considered the life span of an average man. (I am more inclined to view the verse literally. To me, the dating to the fourth year of Solomon’s reign is indicative of exactness, not approximation. If instead it said 480 years from Exodus to Solomon then I would consider the approximation interpretation more credible.)

Earlier scholarly works tend to date the Exodus about the fifteenth century B.C. and name either Thurtmoses III (1490-1435 B.C.) or Amenophis III (1406-1370 B.C.) as the pharaoh of Exodus. The discovery of fourteenth century letters (the Amarna Letters) from vassals in Canaan to Amenophis IV (Ahkenaton) indicate there was a disturbance in the land of Canaan. This is blamed upon marauding bands of people called the Hapiru together with the relaxation of Egyptian rule. (Ahkenaton showed more interest in religious matters than foreign policy. He abandoned Egyptian activity in Palestine concentrating instead upon establishing monotheistic worship of the sun god. This would, of course, make the Israelite task of conquering the land of Canaan easier.) The Hapiru are thought by some scholars to the Hebrews invading the land of Canaan. The date for the destruction of Jericho by Professor John Garstand, who excavated Jericho, (the first city destroyed by the Israelites) supports this view.

Most modern Biblical scholars think the pharaoh of Exodus was Ramses II (1290-1224 B.C.) or if not Ramses II, probably his father Seti I (1309-1290 B.C.). There are several reasons for this belief. Numbers Chapters 20 and 21 indicate that when the Israelites tried to cross Edom and Moab they were turned back and had to cross using a strip of land between their borders. Archaeological research indicates there was not a settled population in the Transjordan area until the thirteenth century. Exodus 1:14Exodus 1:14
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

14 And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in morter, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field: all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigour.  

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tells us the Israelites were forced to build the treasure cities of Pithom and Ramses (Tanis). The archaeological indications are these cities went into decline when the Hyksos were expelled, but were rebuilt during either the reign of Ramses II or that of his father Seti I. (There is also some archaeological evidence that the builders of the treasure cities were treated better than the Biblical account of the treatment afforded the Israelites indicting the treasure cities may have been built by hired laborers, not slaves. If so, this weakens the argument that Rames II or Seti I was the Pharaoh of Exodus.)

It should be noted that both theories ultimately are founded largely on assumptions based on equivocal evidence. The Hapiru may or may not be the Hebrews. The laborers used by Rames II may or may not have been the Israelites. The date of the destruction of Jericho may or may not be correct. It may or may not have been precisely 480 years from Exodus until the fourth year of Solomon’s reign. The lack of archeological evidence of a settled people in the lands of Edom and Moab prior to the thirteenth century does not conclusively prove the Edomites and Moabites did not inhabit the Transjordan in the fifteenth century. The land could have been inhabited by nomadic peoples who refused to allow the Israelites to cross their land or by people who did not leave debris detectable today. However circumstantial the evidence, today most scholars consider Ramses II to be the pharaoh of Exodus. (For more information see, Frank, Discovering The Biblical World.)

Exodus 11:2Exodus 11:2
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

2 Speak now in the ears of the people, and let every man borrow of his neighbour, and every woman of her neighbour, jewels of silver, and jewels of gold.  

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indicates the Israelites borrowed things of value from the Egyptians before leaving. The Hebrew word sha’al means ask, request, demand, require, etc. more than it does borrow. What is probably closer to the truth is the Israelites demanded compensation for their labors prior to leaving. The Egyptian people may have compensated them out of sympathy or out of fear of further plagues. It is easy to see how a demand for compensation would make Pharaoh less likely to grant the Israelites permission to emigrate. The phrase “God hardened Pharaoh’s heart” should be translated “and Pharaoh hardened his heart.”

The symbolism of Christ and paschal lamb is generally understood by Christians. However, certain phrases associated with the preparation of the Passover feast are not always understood. Sodden with water means boiled or stewed. “With the purtenance thereof” means the entrails or internal organs. The lamb was to be roasted with head, feet, and internal organs still present so that it would be fully recognizable, and would be placed on the table essentially unchanged. The Passover meal is often referred to as the feast of unleavened bread because the people were forbidden to use leaven, which symbolizes corruption since leavened bread tends to spoil or turn moldy quickly. The bitter herbs (horseradish, green onions, etc.) symbolizes the sever bondage they endured in Egypt. Non-Israelites were forbidden to eat the Passover meal since it symbolized a covenant between God and Israel.

The commandment to observe the Passover, like the law of circumcision and other commandments, were given as a law forever. As translated forever appears to mean until the end of all time; however, the meaning behind the thought is until the end of a period of time.

I n Exodus 19:5Exodus 19:5
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

5 Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine:  

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, we read “…if we will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenants, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me …”. This is one of many scriptural passages that indicate God’s people are a peculiar people. The original Hebrew meaning of peculiar is property or something that is highly prized. (See Wilson, Old Testament Word Studies.) Reading this verse with that definition adds a deeper meaning to the passage.

Many modern scholars argue that Moses did not cross the Red Sea (the Gulf of Suez) but rather the Reed Sea, marshy lowland near the Bitter Lakes. Such an interpretation is not in harmony with Exodus 14:22,29Exodus 14:22,29
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

22 And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left. 29 But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea; and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left.  

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that states, “the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left”. Paul’s symbolism in First Corinthians 1:1-4 is more supportive of a Red Sea over a Reed Sea interpretation.

Some think the Amalekites that were destroyed by Moses and the armies of Israel were the descendants of Esau through his son Eliphaz and grandson Amalek. However Genesis 14:7Genesis 14:7
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

7 And they returned, and came to Enmishpat, which is Kadesh, and smote all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites, that dwelt in Hazezontamar.  

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mentions both the Amalekites and Amorites as being people living in Hazezontamr during the time of Abraham. They attacked the Israelites in a cowardly manner by attacking the sick and weary at the rear of the march (Deuteronomy 25:17-19Deuteronomy 25:17-19
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

17 Remember what Amalek did unto thee by the way, when ye were come forth out of Egypt; 18 How he met thee by the way, and smote the hindmost of thee, even all that were feeble behind thee, when thou wast faint and weary; and he feared not God. 19 Therefore it shall be, when the LORD thy God hath given thee rest from all thine enemies round about, in the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance to possess it, that thou shalt blot out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven; thou shalt not forget it.  

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) and were consequently cursed by God (Exodus 17:14Exodus 17:14
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

14 And the LORD said unto Moses, Write this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven.  

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) with extinction.

The Laws of Noah

The Laws of Noah–Noahide Law—is not a topic frequently discussed today. What we know about it comes mostly from Jewish tradition and scholarship. It is both logical and reasonable to assume that Noah both taught the gospel to his posterity and give them laws to govern their conduct.

Furthermore, there is no scholarly debate about the accuracy of Jewish traditions surrounding the Laws of Noah. Noahide Law forms the foundation of much of modern Christian conduct and, apparently, was also the foundation from which the Ten Commandments and Law of Moses was derived.

The Laws of Noah are:
1. A Prohibition of Idolatry.

2. A Prohibition of Murder.
3. A Prohibition of Theft.
4. A Prohibition of Sexual Promiscuity.
5. A Prohibition of Blasphemy.
6. A Prohibition of Cruelty to Animals.
7. A Requirement to have Just Laws to police the preceding six laws.

Jewish scholarship provides the following more detailed understanding of the meanings of the Law of Noah:


1. Prohibition against idolatry
• No idolatry

• To pray only to God
• To offer ritual sacrifices only to God

2. Prohibition against blasphemy
• To believe in the singularity of God

• No blasphemy
• No witchcraft
• No divination
• No conjurers
• No sorcerers
• No mediums
• No demonolatry
• No wizardry
• No necromancy
• To honor father and mother

3. Prohibition against murder
• No murder

• No suicide
• No infant sacrifice
• No abortions

4. Prohibition against theft

• No stealing
• No kidnapping

5. Prohibition against sexual immorality

• No adultery
• Formal legal marriages
• No incest with close relatives
• No sodomy (homosexuality)
• No bestiality

6. Prohibition against eating the limb of a living animal

• Not to eat a limb of a living creature (whilst it is still alive)
• Not to eat or drink blood
• Not to eat carrion

7. Requirement to Have Just Laws

• To establish courts and a system of justice
• No false oaths

Upon examining the Law of Noah it is easy to see why today we adhere to the Ten Commandments, but not the Law of Moses. The Laws of Noah are just as binding upon Noah’s posterity today just as they were anciently.

The Ten Commandments

The Ten Commandments, reinforced by other scripture such as Matthew 5:17-37Matthew 5:17-37
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

17 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. 18 For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. 19 Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. 20 For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven. 21 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment: by: or, to 22 But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire. Raca: that is, Vain fellow 23 Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath ought against thee; 24 Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift. 25 Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles thou art in the way with him; lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. 26 Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing. 27 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery: 28 But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart. 29 And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. offend...: or, do cause thee to offend 30 And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. 31 It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement: 32 But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced committeth adultery. 33 Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths: 34 But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God's throne: 35 Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King. 36 Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black. 37 But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.  

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, are a foundation for man’s conduct today as well as in ancient Israel. The first four commandments deal with man’s relationship with God. The fifth commandment establishes the importance of the family relationship, while the last five commandments deal man’s relationship with his fellowman.

Occasionally one hears the claim that the Ten Commandments were part of the Law of Moses, and consequently not binding today. Such is not the case. As indicated above, the Ten Commandments are based upon the laws Noah give his posterity, which are as binding to today as they were anciently. Additionally, a reading of the New Testament indicates the Lord expects full compliance with the Ten Commands. Note the following:

Commandment 1 – No Other Gods Before Me

3. Thou shalt have no other gods before me.
Exodus 20:3Exodus 20:3
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

3 Thou shalt have no other gods before me.  

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36. Master, which is the great commandment in the law?
37. Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind.
38. This is the first and great commandment.
39. And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
40. On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.
Matthew 22:36-40Matthew 22:36-40
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

36 Master, which is the great commandment in the law? 37 Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. 38 This is the first and great commandment. 39 And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 40 On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.  

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Commandment 2 – No Graven Images

4. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth:
5. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;
6. And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.
Exodus 20:4-6Exodus 20:4-6
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: 5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; 6 And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.  

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29. Forasmuch then as we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Godhead is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven by art and man’s device.
Acts 17:29Acts 17:29
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

29 Forasmuch then as we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Godhead is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven by art and man's device.  

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10. And I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See thou do it not: I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus: worship God: for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.
Revelation 19:10Revelation 19:10
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

10 And I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See thou do it not: I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus: worship God: for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.  

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20. And the rest of the men which were not killed by these plagues yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood: which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk:
Revelation 9:20Revelation 9:20
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

20 And the rest of the men which were not killed by these plagues yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and of wood: which neither can see, nor hear, nor walk:  

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10. Be it known unto you all, and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom ye crucified, whom God raised from the dead, even by him doth this man stand here before you whole.
11. This is the stone which was set at nought of you builders, which is become the head of the corner.
12. Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.
Acts 4:10-12Acts 4:10-12
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

10 Be it known unto you all, and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom ye crucified, whom God raised from the dead, even by him doth this man stand here before you whole. 11 This is the stone which was set at nought of you builders, which is become the head of the corner. 12 Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.  

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5. For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;
1 Timothy 2:51 Timothy 2:5
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

5 For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;  

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Commandment 3 – Do Not Take the Lord’s Name in Vain

7. Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.
Exodus 20:7Exodus 20:7
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

7 Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.  

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33. Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths:
34. But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God’s throne:
35. Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King.
36. Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black.
37. But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.
Matthew 5:33-37Matthew 5:33-37
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

33 Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths: 34 But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God's throne: 35 Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King. 36 Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black. 37 But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.  

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Commandment 4 – Honor the Sabbath Day

8. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.
9. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work:
10. But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates:
11. For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it.
Exodus 20:8-11Exodus 20:8-11
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

8 Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. 9 Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: 10 But the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: 11 For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.  

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19. And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me.
20. Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you.

Note: New Testament means New Convent.
Luke 22:19-20Luke 22:19-20
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

19 And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me. 20 Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you.  

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7. And upon the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow; and continued his speech until midnight.
Acts 20:7Acts 20:7
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

7 And upon the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow; and continued his speech until midnight.  

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Commandment 5 – Honor thy Father & Mother

12. Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
Exodus 20:12Exodus 20:12
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

12 Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.  

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16. And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life?
17. And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.
18. He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness,
19. Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
Matthew 19:19Matthew 19:19
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

19 Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.  

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Commandment 6 – Thou Shall Not Kill

13. Thou shalt not kill.
Exodus 20:13Exodus 20:13
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

13 Thou shalt not kill.  

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16. And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life?
17. And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.
18. He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness,
19. Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
Matthew 19:16-19Matthew 19:16-19
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

16 And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? 17 And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments. 18 He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, 19 Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.  

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21. Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment:
22. But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire.
Matthew 5:21-22Matthew 5:21-22
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

21 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment: by: or, to 22 But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire. Raca: that is, Vain fellow  

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9. For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
10. Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.
Romans 13:9-10Romans 13:9-10
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

9 For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 10 Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.  

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Commandment 7 – Thou Shall Not Commit Adultery

14. Thou shalt not commit adultery.
Exodus 20:14Exodus 20:14
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

14 Thou shalt not commit adultery.  

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13. If a man also lie with mankind, as he lieth with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination: they shall surely be put to death
Leviticus 20:13Leviticus 20:13
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

13 If a man also lie with mankind, as he lieth with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination: they shall surely be put to death; their blood shall be upon them.  

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27. Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery:
28. But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart.
Matthew 5:27-28Matthew 5:27-28
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

27 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery: 28 But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart.  

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16. And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life?
17. And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.
18. He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness,
19. Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
Matthew 19:16-19Matthew 19:16-19
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

16 And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? 17 And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments. 18 He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, 19 Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.  

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20. And he said, That which cometh out of the man, that defileth the man.
21. For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders,
22. Thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness:
23. All these evil things come from within, and defile the man.
Mark 7:20Mark 7:20
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

20 And he said, That which cometh out of the man, that defileth the man.  

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– 23

9. For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
10. Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.
Romans 13:9-10Romans 13:9-10
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

9 For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 10 Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.  

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9 Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind,
10 Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God.
1 Corinthians 6:9-101 Corinthians 6:9-10
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

9 Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, 10 Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God.  

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24. Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves:
25. Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.
26. For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature:
27. And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet.
28. And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient;
29. Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers,
30. Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents,
31. Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful:
32. Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.
Romans 1:24Romans 1:24
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

24 Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves:  

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– 32

Notes:
The Greek malakos, translated above as “effeminate” means literately “soft to the touch” and is a euphemistic reference to homosexuals. The Greek arsenokoites, which is translated above as “abusers of themselves with mankind,” means sodomites.

The above “the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another” is used to condemn homosexuals just as the phrase “women exchanged natural relations for unnatural ones” is used to condemn lesbians.

Additionally note that condemnation of fornication and adultery condemns all sexual relations outside of marriage. (Marriage in Biblical times could only occur between men and women.)   The scriptural prohibition against homosexuality is not confined to the Law of Moses.  Sodom, and Gomorrah were destroyed for their homosexual (sodomy) practices long before there was a Law of Moses and, as shown above, the New Testament clearly indicated homosexual practices (by both men and women) is sinful.



Commandment 8 – Thou Shall Not Steal

15. Thou shalt not steal.
Exodus 20:15Exodus 20:15
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

15 Thou shalt not steal.  

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16. And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life?
17. And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.
18. He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness,
19. Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
Matthew 19:16-19Matthew 19:16-19
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

16 And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? 17 And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments. 18 He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, 19 Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.  

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9. For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
10. Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.
Romans 13:9-10Romans 13:9-10
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

9 For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 10 Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.  

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Commandment 9 – Thou Shall Not Bear False Witness

16. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.
Exodus 20:16Exodus 20:16
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

16 Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.  

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16. And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life?
17. And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.
18. He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness,
19. Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
Matthew 19:16-19Matthew 19:16-19
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

16 And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life? 17 And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments. 18 He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, 19 Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.  

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9. For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
10. Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.
Romans 13:9-10Romans 13:9-10
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

9 For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 10 Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.  

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Commandment 10 – Thou Shall Not Covet

17. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour’s.
Exodus 20:17Exodus 20:17
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

17 Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.  

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16. And, behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do, that I may have eternal life?
17. And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.
18. He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness,
19. Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
Matthew 19:19Matthew 19:19
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

19 Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.  

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9. For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
10. Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.
Romans 13:9-10Romans 13:9-10
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

9 For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 10 Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.  

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Comments on Selected Topics in Exodus

Idolatry

Exodus 20:3Exodus 20:3
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

3 Thou shalt have no other gods before me.  

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reads, “Thou shalt have no other gods before me.” Today people tend to think there are no other gods being worshiped in this era or equated something like the pursuit of material wealth as the worship of another god. In reality idolatry is still practiced today (at least I would classify Hindu worship, for example, as idolatrous). In Western societies secular humanism fits the definition of the worship of a false god.

Visiting the Sins of the Fathers on the Children

Exodus 20:4-6Exodus 20:4-6
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

4 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: 5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; 6 And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.  

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is frequently interpreted in a manner that is not in harmony with other scripture. These verses read:

Thou shall not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness that is in the heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under that earth.
Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;
And shewing mercy unto the thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.

God is seen by some as punishing sin in such a way that children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren are singled out for punishment based upon the actions of their ancestor. Such an interpretation of these verses is at odds with other scripture.

When establishing the meaning of these verses it is well to also read 2 Chronicles 25:42 Chronicles 25:4
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

4 But he slew not their children, but did as it is written in the law in the book of Moses, where the LORD commanded, saying, The fathers shall not die for the children, neither shall the children die for the fathers, but every man shall die for his own sin.  

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, which says of Amaziah:

But he slew not their children, but did as it is written in the laws in the book of Moses, where the LORD commanded, saying, The fathers shall not die for the children, neither shall the children die for the fathers, but every man shall die for his own sin.

The life of the ancient Israelites was based upon the extended family unit far more than are our lives today. Whatever befell one member of the family impacted all the other family members. For example, when Uzzah was slain by God for touching the Ark of the Covenant (2j Samuel 6) surely his children and grandchildren were impacted by his death—not because God wanted to punished them specifically but because the punishment of Uzzah was something felt by all his family.

When parents teach their children to sin then their children suffer the consequence of sin. For example, the result of parents teaching their children to worship idols instead of God is that their posterity will suffer the punishment for idolatry until such time as a future generation repents by worshiping God instead of following the teachings of their ancestor. This is the concept expressed in Exodus 20:6Exodus 20:6
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

6 And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.  

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.


The LORD is a Jealous God

God is described as being a jealous God, perhaps a poor expression of the intended concept as it sometimes lead to God being seen as selfish or self-centered. The Hebrew root word kanah denotes ardor, zeal, and jealousy. God’s opposition to idolatry is deep and strong, as expressed by kanah, however, God is not selfish as is implied by the English word jealous.


Exodus Bible Study Tool:  Outline of Exodus

I. The Israelites as slaves in Egypt
A. Reasons the Israelites became slaves.
1. The end of the Hyksos rule. When Jacob’s family entered Egypt the nation had been conquered by a foreign (Semitic) people. Those assisting the Hyksos were punished when Egypt regained its independence. (Israelites went from civil servants to slaves.)
2. The Israelites had become a numerous people. Given freedom the Egyptians feared the Israelites would conqueror Egypt or help a foreign power in such an endeavor.
B. The oppression of the Israelites. )
1. Forced to build the treasure cities of Raamses and Pithom, which were used to store grain. Later they were forced to make bricks without straw.
2. Male infants killed. Infanticide was practiced to decrease the potential military threat posed by the Israelites.
C. The birth, preservation and upbringing of Moses.
1. Amram and Jochebed, of the tribe of Levi, are the parents of Moses.
2. Moses hidden in the bulrushes and cared for by his sister.
3. Moses adopted by Pharaoh’s daughter.
D. Moses in the Land of Midian for 40 years.
1. Flight from Egypt after slewing an Egyptian taskmaster.
2. Moses marries and lives with Jethro, his father-in-law.
3. The burning bush. Moses called to free Israel. Aaron appointed his spokesman.
E. The struggle to free the Israelites.
1. Moses appeals to the Israelites to follow him and they respond.
2. The Ten Plagues.
1. Water turned to blood.
2. Frogs.
3. Lice.
4. Flies
5. Murrain.
6. Boils.
7. Hail
8. Locusts.
9. Darkness
10. Death of the firstborn.
F. The First Passover.
G. The Exodus and passage through the Red Sea.

II. From the Red Sea to Mount Sinai.

A. The Song of Moses. (Thankfulness for deliverance.)
B. The Wilderness of Shur.
C. At Marah and Elim. (Springs and palm trees.)
D. In the Wilderness of Sin. Murmurings. Quail and manna.
E. At Rephidim.
1. The water from the rock.
2. Battle with the Amalekites.

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