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Genesis

Genesis Bible Study Notes

Overview of Genesis

Moses wrote the first five books of the Bible or The Pentateuch during the forty years the Israelites wandered in the wilderness. How much of Genesis Moses received by direct revelation and how much is taken from recorded and oral history available to Moses is not known. (We know, of course, that Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, ordained Moses a High Priest and provided him counsel during the Exodus. Thus it seems safe to assume Moses had access to both written and oral teachings unknown to us today.)

Genesis, of course, means the beginning; and the Book of Genesis sets forth numerous beginnings, which include: that of the world; of mortal life; of sin and its consequences; of marriage; of family and interpersonal relationships; and God’s plan of salvation of peoples and nations, of the Messianic nation, and the Messianic line.

What is most important in Genesis is not the historical data that it contains, but the truths that are taught. The first lesson of Genesis is that God exists, and his existence is independent of our physical world. The second is God created the world for a purpose. (Science also teaches that the world had a beginning, the “big bang” theory, but is unable to provide information about the earth’s purpose.) Genesis begins by refuting the theories of Atheism, Pantheism, and Materialism.

It is interesting to note that both science and Genesis view the creation of the world as a process, not an event. It is also interesting to note that the word “creation” is only used three times in Genesis: the first time is when it is attached to the overall creation of the universe, the second time it is associated with the coming forth of life (life does not come from dead matter), and the third time with the creation of man. In other instances words such as making, ordering, or appointing are used.

Were Genesis an uninspired work written by a man it would seem likely that an author unfamiliar with modern science would begin with the creation of mankind or that he would reserve the final day of creation solely for man’s creation. Instead the order of Genesis is harmonious with the evolutionary steps taught by science. Man is the final creation and his creation occurs not on a separate day, but on the same day as the higher animals.

Genesis provides important and fundamental insights into man’s relationship with God and nature. Man is more than the animals inhabiting the earth. He was created in the image of God and his creation was not complete until God breathed into him the breath of life, something that did not occur in the creation of the animals. Furthermore, Genesis teaches us that everything was created spiritually before it was created physically. Man’s first and enduring relationship is a spiritual one with God. We are taught there is more to our existence than mortality because we are created in God’s image and are intended to return to him.

Among many gospel concepts first encountered in Genesis is the teaching that marriage is a divine institution, established by God for the benefit of man. We are also taught that man was given dominion over the earth and all living things. Furthermore, work is required of man to fulfill his stewardship over the earth. The commandment to dress the garden was given before Adam was cast out of the garden and told to earn his bread by the sweat of his brow. Work is not a punishment for sin.

In Genesis we are taught the condition of man when he is free of sin and also how sin separates man from God. The existence of the plan of salvation whereby man may be redeemed from sin and return to God’s presence is announced in Genesis and the Messianic line is given. An account of how the Messianic line was preserved during the flood and other times of crisis is given in Genesis. These accounts are intended in part to show that those who seek God will also be preserved both during the Second Coming and at the end of their mortal life.

The Book of Genesis is more than an historical record. It is a brief overview of the purpose for which the world was created and the reason for man’s mortal existence. Genesis establishes a foundation without which all other scripture cannot be understood.

The Names Eloheim and Jehovah

Two different Hebrew words for God, Eloheim and Jehovah, are used throughout the Bible. Eloheim is a name-title (just as the word “father” in English is a name-title) given to the Father of our spirits. (Both Genesis and Hebrews 12:9Hebrews 12:9
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

9 Furthermore we have had fathers of our flesh which corrected us, and we gave them reverence: shall we not much rather be in subjection unto the Father of spirits, and live?  

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teach that man’s spirit has a father.) The word Eloheim expresses absolute power and exaltation.

The Hebrew suffixes im and heim are used to make nouns plural in much the same way that adding s or es to an English noun makes it plural; therefore, the word Eloheim should be translated Gods. Since the traditional view of both Christian and Jewish theology is that God is a single entity (although Christianity also teaches the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are gods) the word Eloheim is usually mistranslated. Hence we find that to conform to the prevailing notions of orthodox theology, the word Eloheim is usually translated as God contrary to the grammatical rules of the Hebrew language. A more literal translation of Genesis 1:26Genesis 1:26
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.  

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would read, “The head one of the Gods said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness.” As this verse appears in the King James Version the word Eloheim is translated as a singular noun “God”, but the concept of plurality remains in the pronouns used in the translation, “And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness.” (Emphasis added.) In reading this passage, those desiring a topic for study and mediation might consider the question of how a man can create a female that is in his own image and who are the Gods referred to as Eloheim.

Jehovah is the English form of the Hebrew Yahveh or Jahveh, meaning, “He Is,” “He Exists,” “The Self-existent One,” or “The Eternal.” Ancient Hebrew was written without vowels and this word was written as YHWH in the original Biblical text, consequently modern scholars are unsure of either the proper pronunciation or complete spelling.

The closest translation of the Hebrew verb, Ehyeh, is the first person singular of the English verb to be, “I AM”. YHWH is the third person singular form of the same verb meaning HE IS or HE EXISTS. With “I AM” being so closely related to Yahveh or Jehovah it is easy to see how both conjugations of this verb refer to the Messiah. The people, of course, would use the third person of this verb while when speaking of Jehovah, whereas Jehovah would use the first person when referring to himself.

The English word “Christ” comes from the Greek Christos, which means “the anointed one.” The Greeks used the title Christos when translating the Hebrew word Meshiah, which is anglicized as Messiah. Jesus the Christ means Jesus the Messiah.

The Jews considered the name Jehovah to be so sacred that they avoided speaking it by substituting Adonai, “the Lord,” for Jehovah. In the King James Version of the Bible the translators followed the Jewish custom where Jehovah is usually translated as LORD (using capital letters).

Because Jehovah is one with God and is also God, Old Testament prophets sometimes referred to him as “Jehovah Eloheim” which has been translated in the King James Version as “LORD God.” The phrases “Jehovah Eloheim” is used in Genesis several times in Genesis Chapters 2 and 3, and appears less frequently thereafter in the Old Testament. The phrase “Adonai Jehovah,” literally Lord LORD, is often translated in the King James Version as Lord GOD. (See Genesis 15:2,8Genesis 15:2,8
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

2 And Abram said, Lord GOD, what wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless, and the steward of my house is this Eliezer of Damascus? 8 And he said, Lord GOD, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?  

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and Deuteronomy 3:24Deuteronomy 3:24
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

24 O Lord GOD, thou hast begun to shew thy servant thy greatness, and thy mighty hand: for what God is there in heaven or in earth, that can do according to thy works, and according to thy might?  

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.)

Usually, in the King James Version of the Bible, the word “Jehovah” is translated as either LORD or GOD. However, when reading English translations of the Bible it is not always possible to be certain if the original text is speaking of Jehovah or Eloheim without referring to the Hebrew text.

The following table summarizes the translation most frequently used in the King James Version of the Bible.

King James Translation of Eloheim and Jehovah

Hebrew NameKing James Translation
EloheimGod
JehovahLORD or GOD
Jehovah EloheimLORD God
Adonai JehovahLord GOD

 

 The Words:  Day, Creation, and Firmament

As most people know, the word day in Hebrew, like English, has multiple meanings. Day as used in Genesis would be better translated as age, era, occurrence, etc. We speak of the Day of Dinosaurs, the Age of Mammals, etc. without implying either a 24-hour period or that these events lasted the same amount of time. When reading about the creation in Genesis the word day should be given the same value as day in the phrase the Day of the Dinosaurs.

The word created is sometimes misunderstood. As used in Genesis the word created does not imply that something came into existence out of nothing. It has the meaning of organized, formed, etc. as in Michelangelo created the statue of David. This does not imply that the statue came into existence out of nothing. Michelangelo used a block of marble to create his statue. God created the world, not by bringing it into existence out of nothing, but by organizing matter into what we now see around us.

The word firmament in English is often seen as meaning something solid. The Hebrew word that has been translated as firmament means “something that is thin, extended, spread out”—a fitting description for the atmosphere. (It is in this meaning of the word that Genesis 1:16-17Genesis 1:16-17
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also. to rule the day...: Heb. for the rule of the day, etc. 17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,  

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speaks of the stars and two great lights, meaning the sun and moon, being placed in the firmament.)


Meaning of the Patriarch’s Names

An examination of the names contained in the genealogy of Adam’s posterity contained in Genesis Chapter 5 leads one to wonder how much of a message versus historic record Moses intended to provide his readers. The meaning within the names would lead a reader to wonder if Moses was perhaps alluding to information that might have been common knowledge among his people and lost to us today. As Missler and others have shown, Hebrew names have great significance:

Consider the Hebrew meaning of each of the following names. Adam, from the Hebrew adamah, means “man”. Seth means appointed as shown in Eve’s statement, “For God hath appointed me another instead of Abel….” Seth’s son was named Enos, from a Hebrew word, which may be translated mortal, frail or miserable. In the days of Enos man began to defile the name of God. Enos comes from the Hebrew root anash, which means “incurable” and may be applied to a wound, woe, grief, sickness, wickedness, etc. Cainan’s name means “sorrow”. (The land of Cainan is not named after a person, instead it means Land of Sorrows. The prophet Balaam made use of a play on words when cursing the Israelites.) The name Mahalale means blessed, while the suffix el means God, thus the name of Cainan’s son Mahalalel means “The Blessed God”. (Other Hebrew names contain el or God such as Daini-el, “God is my Judge”, and Nathani-el, “Gift of God”.) Mahalalel’s son was named Jared, derived from the Hebrew verb yaradh which meaning “shall come down”. (Some think his name might be connected to account in Genesis Chapter 6 to the “Sons of God” who “came down” to corrupt the daughters of men resulting in the “Fallen Ones” or Nephilim.) Jared’s son Enoch was the first of four generations that would preach to the people, his name means “teaching” or “commencement”. (It is worth noting that the earliest prophecy contained in the Bible [see Jude 14,15Jude 14,15
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

Izbrano poglavje ne obstaja!

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] is by Enoch concerning the Second Coming of Christ.) Enoch prophesied that the flood would not occur as long as his son lived, and named his son after this prophecy. Methuselah comes from two roots: muth a root word meaning “death”, and shalach meaning “to bring forth”. Thus Mathuselah means “his death shall bring.” (Methuselah was 187 when he begat Lemech and Lamech was 182 when he begat Noah. The flood came when Noah was 600 years old, thus by this reckoning, 187+182+600=969, gives Methuselah’s age at his death. It is also instructive that Methuselah lived longer than any person mentioned in Bible since the prolongation of his life symbolized the God’s longsuffering.) The name Lamech, given by Methuselah to his son, means “disparing”, the root word for Lamech’s name may be seen in the English words lament and lamentation. The name for Noah, Lamech’s son, comes from the Hebrew nacham which means “to bring relief” or “comfort” as explained in Genesis 5:29Genesis 5:29
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

29 And he called his name Noah, saying, This same shall comfort us concerning our work and toil of our hands, because of the ground which the LORD hath cursed. Noah: Gr. Noe: that is Rest, or, Comfort  

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. When the names are read as a list they produce an interesting message, which is: Man, Appointed, Mortal, Sorrow, The Blessed God, Shall come down, Teaching, His death shall bring, The despairing, Rest or comfort.

 

Hebrew NameEnglish Meaning
AdamMan
SethAppointed
EnosMortal
CainanSorrow
MahalaleelThe Blessed God
JaredShall come down
EnochTeaching
MethuselahHis death shall bring
LamechThe despairing
NoahRest, or comfort

 (The preceding information was taken from Personal Update, Chuck Missler, August 2000, pp. 31-33.)

Numbers, like names, had great symbolic importance for the Israelites. Some scholars believe the ages given for the antediluvian Patriarchs (those living between the time of Adam and Noah whose genealogy is recorded in Genesis 5) were intended to convey figurative meanings. (Just as in our cultural a statement of 1000% would not be interpreted literally and that figuratively these ages were intended to impart a message, instead of providing the reader the actual length of their lives.) For example, the age of Enoch is given as 365 years. Since there are 365 days in a year some consider Enoch’s age to mean that he lived a full or complete life. The number seven was considered by the Hebrews to be the number of completeness or perfection. The age of Lamech is given as 777 years, which might be a figurative statement that Lamech lived a complete or perfect life. If this is the case then over time we have lost the cultural framework needed to understand the symbolic meanings associated with these numbers.

Various attempts have been made (such as that by Bishop Usher) to find the date of the creation of the world using the information contained in the Book of Genesis. Such chronologies provide a period of 4000 years for the elapsed time between Adam and Christ, with the Flood (1,656 years after Adam) occurring around 2344 B.C. Recorded history, of course, extents beyond 2500 B.C. in Egypt and China and all that man learns from both history and science makes it doubtful that the material in Genesis should be used to date the creation of the world. It is possible that patriarchs listed in Genesis were the heads of dispensations or dynasties in which case the Adamic era would be far more than 4000 years ago. It is also possible that gaps exist in the in the list of antediluvian patriarchs recorded in Genesis. If figurative meanings were intended for the age of the patriarchs or if the patriarchs are representatives of different dispensations or eras then it becomes easy to see why there is such a discrepancy between historical records and a chronology based upon Genesis.

Science vs. Religion

Many people are troubled by apparent discrepancies between modern sciences and the Bible, and. this conflict is most evident when reading Genesis. Some find it helpful to concentrate on seeing the “big picture.” They often find that when the important concepts taught in Genesis are understood it becomes easier to have faith that in time a satisfactory explanation for the conflicts seen today will emerge.

Some find that comparing the creation account given in Genesis with the teachings of modern science actually increases their faith. They consider it impossible for an uninspired man living in Moses’ era to write an account of the creation that would be in such harmony with the creative order taught by science. An uninspired man might well begin the account of creation with the creation of man or at a minimum devote an entire day to man’s creation. Moses did neither. His account of the creative process is so similar to that taught by modern science that for many it is faith promoting.

Genesis teaches that the world did not come into existence by random chance, rather that our world is the product of God’s creation. Genesis, unlike science, teaches that life does not exist without purpose; rather our birth is part of God’s eternal plan. Genesis provides insight into what God did, and why he did it; however, it provides little insight into how God made the world.

Questions about how the world was made are largely unanswered except by metaphors. (God breathed the breath of life into Adam and he became a living soul, God made woman out of Adams rib, etc.) For answers to how God works we must turn to science.

We should remember the scientific quest for a model or theory is not necessarily a quest for truth. Science properly uses the word model. When seeking a theory science often tries to answer the question, “how could man…”. This is not quiet the same question as how did something happen, hence, the term model for a scientific theory is very appropriate.

For man to create a world certain conditions would have to exist. Man would require random chance in the creation of the world. If man created the world he would have to wait and hope for a “big bang” as he lacks any other means of creating a universe. Thus it is easy to see why God is omitted from scientific theories and why science sees life as random and meaningless, instead of fulfilling a purpose.

We live in an era in which anything religious that cannot be explain is heralded, while the inconsistencies of science are ignored. As examples, consider both the “big bang” theory and evolution. Both are commonly used as objections to the existence of God, yet inconsistencies in both of these scientific theories are ignored. According to the big bang theory and the laws of physics all planets should be spinning in the same direction. They do not. When Darwin theorized that one species evolved into another species the fossil record needed to support his theory was lacking. Thus he postulated that when the fossil record became more extensive there would be numerous examples found of species evolving. The fossil record is now more extensive than envisioned by Darwin; however, we still lack fossil records of transitional species. Just as in Darwin’s day, the fossil record continues to show evolution within species and does not support evolution of species; however, the failure of the fossil record to produce the transitional species predicted by Darwin is ignored.

The faithful should take some consolation in the fact that scientific theories change over time. The Biblical account (Genesis 10:25Genesis 10:25
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

25 And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan. Peleg: that is Division  

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) of the earth being divided was once considered to conflict with geology. Today, the theory of continental drift is seen as supporting, rather than disproving, the same scriptural passage.

When considering apparent conflicts between science and religion it is sometimes necessary to question our understanding of God. For example, many people are unable to understand how God can possibly hear the prayers of all mankind. We are limited to thinking one thought at a time. (To use computer terms we single task, not multitask.) That does not mean that God can only think one thought—or have one conversation—at a time. We impose our human limitations on God, and then deny his existence thinking he cannot do something we cannot do. Instead, we should search for a better understanding of God’s power and true nature.

Through science we are gaining insight into the laws of physics that govern the world in which we live. We should not assume that the physical laws of our world govern God’s existence. We have all seen movies where the speed of action can be increased or decreased. If to God, we were living in extremely slow motion it would be easy to see how he could hear the prayers of all mankind.

Time, especially as a part of physics, is something we do not understand well. We cannot alter time, nor foresee the future. Yet, once again, we impose our limitations on God believing that since we cannot alter time or foresee the future that same is impossible for God. (At present the only way science can explain the current condition of the earth is through the passage of billions of years. When man makes wine years in the aging process are required and, within limits, the long wine ages the better it becomes. Consider, however, that at the wedding feast of Cana, Jesus was able to produce a superior wine without the need for an aging process. Because man does not know how the earth could arrive at its present state without the passage of billions of years it does not follow that God needs billions of years to create a world that has the same condition that our s earth does.)

At times science helps us see how what is impossible for us could be possible for God. To understand how God can see the past, present, and future consider the case of a person standing on a street corner watching a parade. This person sees neither the beginning nor the end of the parade, only what is immediately in front of the street corner where he or she is standing. Notice what happens when we add an additional dimension turning what has been a two-dimensional activity into a three-dimensional activity. Suppose we put the spectator in a balloon instead of on the street corner. Now the spectator can see the entire parade simultaneously. Nor does viewing the entire parade in any way diminish the independence and agency of those marching in the parade. Science currently postulates nine dimensions in our universe, not just the three with which we are currently familiar. Were God to understand and utilize additional dimensions it is easy to see how limitations, such as those of time, which govern our existence would not govern his.

It seems God views the development of faith–a trust and reliance in Him–to be a critical part of man’s growth during his mortal life. Today, for many, science forms an obstacle to the development of faith, just as anciently idolatry challenged faith in God. It seems that man always prefers to believe in something tangible instead of in God. Moreover, man seems to naturally seek independence and control over his destiny in a way that is not possible if God exists and man is dependent upon Him. Anciently man sought through idolatrous sacrifice and ceremony to control his destiny. Today we seek a similar independence from God and his control of our destiny through science. Like ancient Israel, we find faith and reliance on God difficult and seek to control our destiny independently of God. Should the time come that scientific thought no longer conflicts with religious teachings then something else will arise to challenge our belief in God and assist us in developing faith and trust in God.


Comments on Selected Topics in Genesis

Seven Day Creation

In this era many people have trouble accepting that God created the world in seven days. There are two explanations to what many believe is a scientific impossibility. (As always, if one is patient and searches diligently for answers in time a solution to the perceived inconsistency appears—just as the theory of continental drift explains what science once taught was false.)

First, as stated above, the word day should not be taken as meaning the twenty-four hour period in which the earth rotates on its axis. Rather it should be seen as meaning era, period, etc. Nor should it be taken to mean that each day was of the same duration. The Book of Abraham uses the word time rather than day and this usage comes closer to the meaning of the word.

There is, however, another more recent interpretation of these Biblical verses this author finds to be of great interest. An astrophysicist (whose name I have cannot locate because I have misplaced my notes on this subject) that sheds new light on the possibility of a literal six day creation. Current scientific theory says the universe as we know it came into existence about 15 billion years ago with a “big bang” and the universe is expanding. This man’s theory is that time as well as space is expanding and that to an observer standing at “ground zero” of the “big bang” it would appear the universe come into existence in six days. The mathematics supporting this theory is beyond my understanding, but the theory has passed peer review. As I said, it offers a very interesting scientific explanation for what many consider to be an inconsistency between science and religion.


Tower of Babel

As is often the case in the Old Testament, knowledge of the doctrine and ordinances of the gospel are necessary to understand the events recorded in the scriptures. There are those who upon reading the account of the Tower of Babel think God was actually concerned that man could build a tower so high that man could reach heaven. Such was not the case. The Tower of Babel was a temple used to perform ordinances by an apostate priesthood. Whatever the teachings of this apostate priesthood were, they were popular enough to lead significant numbers of God’s children away from the truth. The confounding of the languages was the method God used to stop this apostate gospel from spreading.

In the spring of 1964, excavations were begun at Tell Mardikh, a large tell (ruin or obvious mound of sand and silt over an ancient site, generally a city), 35 miles south of Aleppo, Syria, by a team from the University of Rome…. Since then additional archive materials have been found numbering more than 42,000 tablets of a great library belonging to a lost kingdom that was one of the most important about 2350 BC…. Two tablets deal with case law, and the law code of Ebla must now be recognized as the oldest ever yet found…one tablet refers to the fact that there was a time when all people spoke one language or one tongue…the whole Universe, the people in unison [spoke] to Enlil [God] in one tongue.
“Ether and Ebla,” Einar C. Erickson, http://www.einarerickson.com/content/view/64/39,

In the February 1994 Ensign, Lee Donaldson, V. Dan Rogers, and David Rolph Seely provide insight into the events surrounding the building of the Tower of Babel.

The account in Genesis provides further clues regarding the significance of the building of the tower. First, the impetus in building this temple was to make themselves a name. In other words, Nimrod was proposing that they build a temple to receive the name of God without making eternal covenants.

The word Babel in Hebrew meant “confusion,” but in Babylonian or Akkadian, the meaning was “gate of God.” Nimrod and his people were building their own temple, their gate to heaven, without divine approval or priesthood keys.

It is easy to see why an apostate people, having some understanding of temple ordinances and temple purpose, would construct an edifice symbolizing to them that connecting point and, with whatever ceremony they contrived in imitation of true temple worship, would attempt to duplicate the process of preparation for the hereafter.

In simple terms, the tower of Babel was a tall structure, meant to challenge God’s power as manifest in the Flood and it was a forgery of the spiritual covenants and blessings of a temple. The Lord chastised this rebellion by creating a schism of communication by changing everyone’s spoken language. The miracle chastised the people and left them with little choice but to follow God’s commandment to multiply and spread across the land.


Abraham’s Wife

Many people assume Abraham was lying when he told Abimelech, King of Gerar, that Sarah was his sister. (See Genesis 20:2Genesis 20:2
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

2 And Abraham said of Sarah his wife, She is my sister: and Abimelech king of Gerar sent, and took Sarah.  

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.) Such as assumption may or may not be correct—but the probability is such a statement was not a lie. We gain insight into the customs of Haran, where Abraham lived after leaving Ur, from Ephraim A. Speiser’s translation of the cuneiform texts from Nuzi, in Upper Mesopotamia, during the middle of the second millennium before Christ. To quote:

In Hurrian society a wife enjoyed special standing and protection when the law recognized her simultaneously as her husband’s sister, regardless of actual blood ties…This dual role conferred on the wife a superior position in society.
(Ancient Israel, Hershel Shanks editor, pp. 9-10. See also “The Wife-Sister Motif in the Patriarchal Narratives” in Biblical and Other Studies, ed. A. Altmann, Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1963, pp. 15-28.)

Since the evidence indicates this custom existed throughout the region it is altogether possible, and perhaps probable, that Abraham could say both legally and culturally that Sarah was his sister as well as his wife without prevarication.

Lot’s Wife

Many people (thanks in part to Cecil B. DeMille’s movie The Ten Commandments) have an erroneous mental picture of Lot’s wife being turned into a pillar of salt while looking over her shoulder. In Hebrew, the phrase “looking back” has the same meaning that “backsliding” does in English. Lot’s wife initially fled with Lot and his daughters. For some reason, possibly due to a lack of faith or perhaps to save some of her possession that had been left behind, Lot’s wife returned to Sodom where she was destroyed with the rest of the inhabitants. Today the waters of the southern part of the Dead Sea cover the ruins of Sodom and Gomorrah. Saying she became a pillar of salt is a figurative way of explaining how she died, similar to saying the cities were swallowed the by the sea.

Law of the Primogenitor and the Double Portion

Ancient Hebrew law and custom made the first-born male the rightful heir. It should be noted that Ishmael, not Isaac, was the first-born son of Abraham. Esau, not Jacob, was the first-born son of Isaac. Yet the Abrahamic covenantal promises descend from Abraham to Isaac, and from Isaac to Jacob. This was done to teach us that man has no right to claim, nor can he earn, the Lord’s mercy and favor. These are gifts bestowed by the Lord on the faithful according to his will.

During some periods in the ancient Israel it was customary at the death of a father for his property to be divided among his sons. If a father had three sons his property would be divided into four parts. The eldest son would receive two parts, which was called the “double portion.” The eldest son was then expected to care for his mother, sisters, and other dependant relations. Whoever received the double portion was marked as the heir. When Elisha asks for a double portion of Elijah’s spirit after Elijah is taken into heaven he is asking for the rights of the heir of Elijah—not, as some mistakenly think, for twice the power of Elijah.


Genesis 10 – Peoples of the Earth

Genesis 10 presents a fairly detailed list of the various nations and peoples that the Israelites had contact with. The classification is partly linguistic and partly geographical. In general the Indo-European peoples north and west of Mesopotamia are listed as descendents of Japheth (who is said to be the father of the northern peoples; the Semitic speaking peoples of Mesopotamian, Syria, and Arabia are listed as descendents of Shem (the father of the middle peoples); and the peoples of North Africa are listed as descendents of Ham (the father of the southern peoples).

There are some expectations. The Semitic speaking peoples of Canaan are listed as descendents of Ham because they were subject to Egypt. (Genesis 10:6.15-19Genesis 10:6.15-19
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

6 And the sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan. 15 And Canaan begat Sidon his firstborn, and Heth, Sidon: Heb. Tzidon 16 And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgasite, 17 And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, 18 And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite: and afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad. 19 And the border of the Canaanites was from Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar, unto Gaza; as thou goest, unto Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboim, even unto Lasha. Gaza: Heb. Azzah  

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.) Some of the tribes of Arabia are listed under both Shem and Ham. (This may be the result of “corrections” made by scribes in the 9th century before Christ.) Obviously with the intermarriage that has occurred over time no people can claim to descend from only one of Noah’s grandsons.

There is debate about the correct birth order Noah’s sons. Genesis 10:1Genesis 10:1
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10 1 Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood.  

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gives the order as: Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Some believe this is because Shem was the oldest son. However, Genesis 10:21Genesis 10:21
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

21 Unto Shem also, the father of all the children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the elder, even to him were children born.  

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states that Shem was “the brother of Japheth the elder” and consequently many believe that Japheth was the first born and that Shem was listed first in verse one because he is the ancestor of the Israelites who are recording his genealogy. The listing of Noah’s sons and grandsons begins with Japheth and ends with Shem. This is probably for convenience as Shem’s linage is given in greater detail so as to provide the linage of Abraham and the Hebrew peoples. The Hebrew people are named for Eber and Abraham is a descendent of Eber through Peleg. (According to Genesis 10:25Genesis 10:25
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25 And unto Eber were born two sons: the name of one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan. Peleg: that is Division  

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it was in the days of Peleg that the world was divided into continents. The name Peleg contains a Hebrew play on words. The Hebrew word “niplega” means, “was divided.”)

Sadly, at times information in Genesis has been used to support various political views. For example,

God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant. (Genesis 9:27Genesis 9:27
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27 God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant. enlarge: or, persuade  

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) was used to support 19th Century European imperialism as well as slavery and “second class” treatment of blacks.

The origins of some peoples–such as the Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans–is hard to discern based on the information given in Genesis. These peoples probably descend from Japheth, but may also have a Semitic heritage or be a mixture of both. The Israelites did not have extensive contact with this region of the world, but apparently were aware of its geographical location. During the gathering of Israel the prophet Isaiah tells us that some of the house of Israel will return from Sinim. (Isaiah 49:12Isaiah 49:12
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12 Behold, these shall come from far: and, lo, these from the north and from the west; and these from the land of Sinim.  

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.) Sinim is the geographical name in Hebrew for a large part of Asia that contains the Gobi desert, China, Tibet, and other surrounding lands. (The English word for China comes from the Chin dynasty. The English geographical term associated with Sinim can be found in English words such as Sino-American or Sino-Soviet relations.)

While anciently this information may have been useful to the Jews in categorizing their Middle Eastern neighbors it becomes less useful when one starts to speak about Europe, Asia, and the Americas. There is also disagreement among both ancient and modern scholars regarding which nations should be assigned to which of Noah’s descendents, leading to many variations of the table of nations. It should be noted that the spoken language played a prominent role in the categorization anciently assigned to various peoples. The following table gives some of the more popular views regarding the origin of nations. In some cases where there is dispute about the origin of a people multiple viewpoints are listed. For example the Scythians are listed as descending from both Gomer and Magog since there is disagreement about their origin. (There especially is considerable dispute about much that is related to Magog.)

There is also considerable debate about the accuracy of the traditions that state which nations descended from which of Noah’s sons, grandsons, great-grandsons, etc. The seven peoples the Israelites were commanded to destroy when they entered the land of Canaan—the Hittites, Girgashites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites and the Jebusites—are listed as being descendents of Canaan. However, they spoke a Semitic language, not a Semito-Hamitic language like most of Ham’s descendents. (Semito-Hamitic languages are now more commonly known by the “politically correct” name of Afro-Asiatic languages.) Nimrod, a descendent of Ham through Cush, is listed as founding Babel (Babylon) in another place where Semitic languages dominate. It is unclear if the Asshur who “went forth and builded Niveveh” was the son of Shem or a descendent of Ham, although it appears more likely that Genesis 10 means the later. Egypt also was populated by the descendents of Ham. (Psalms 78:51, 105:23Psalms 78:51, 105:23
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51 And smote all the firstborn in Egypt; the chief of their strength in the tabernacles of Ham:  

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.) The Israelites were slaves in Egypt while the Assyrians and Babylonians would later capture Israel and Judah; consequently, some scholars believe there was a Jewish practice of assigning the genealogical origin of Israel’s enemies to Ham. It should be noted that the majority of the information about this subject comes from tradition, not the Bible itself, and consequently the probability is some (or much) of this information is full of error exists. (This becomes increasingly obvious when one compares modern linguistic and DNA research with oral Biblical historical traditions.) When studying the limited information concerning this subject that is actually contained in the Bible one needs one needs to ask is if the information is exactly what was revealed to Moses or if was it added or modified later.

For whatever it is worth, a table of nations is given below for Noah’s sons and grandsons. To illustrate the lack of consensus that exists in most cases two (or more) opinions is given regarding the peoples that descended from Noah’s grandsons.


Table of Nations Descending From Noah’s Sons

SonDescendents
JaphethNorthern peoples speaking Indo-European languages
ShemMiddle Eastern peoples speaking Semitic languages
HamSouthern peoples speaking Semito-Hamitic languages

 


Table of Nations Descending From Noah’s Grandsons

GrandsonFatherDescendents
GomerJaphethCeltic peoples
——————–
Scythians, Turks, Armenians, Welsh, Picts, Irish, and Germans.  Usually identified with the migratory Gimirru (Cimmerians) of Assyrian inscriptions, attested from about 720 BC.  (Some also credit him with being the ancestor of various European, Central Asia, and Asian nations, such as Tibet and Korea.)
MagogJaphethScythians, Slavas, Russians, Bulgarians, Bohemians, Poles, Slovaks, Croatians
——————-
Magog has not been definitively linked to the name of any historical entity, although he is claimed as an ancestor in both Irish and Hungarian medieval traditions. Flavius Josephus, followed by Jerome and Nennius, makes him the ancestor of the Scythians who dwelt north of the Black Sea.  Slavs are also said to descend from him.  In other tradations Gog is portrayed as being the father of  “the country at the four corners of the world”. This is commonly identified as Central Eurasia; he is also credited by some with being the ancestor of the Chinese.
MadaiJaphethIndians & Tranic: Medes, Persians, Afgans, Kurds
——————–
Mitanni, Mannai, Medes (and hence Kurds), more generally Persians, or even more generally Indo-Aryans The Medes of Northwest Iran first appear in Assyrian inscriptions as Amadai in about 844 BC.
JavanJaphethGreece, Romans, Romance Peoples (French, Itialians, Spanish, Portuguese, etc.)
——————–
Ionians (and hence Greeks). This name is said to be connected with that of the Aegean state of Ionia, first appearing in records ca. 700 BC.  (A few think he was the ancestor of the Japanese; however, most think the similiarities in names is coincidental.)
TubalTubalJaphethJaphethPeoples south of the Black Sea
——————–
Tabali, Georgians, Italics, Illyrians, Iberians, and Basques.  He Is connected with the Tabali, an Anatolian tribe, and both the Iberians of the Caucasus and those of the Iberian peninsula (modern Spain and Portugal), as well as Illyrians and Italics. In the book of Jubilees he was bequeathed the three “tounges” of Europe.
MeshechJaphethPhrygians, Meskheti, and Moschoi.  He. Is regarded as the eponym of the Mushki Phrygian tribe of Anatolia who, like the Tabali, contributed to the collapse of the Hittites ca. 1200 BC. The Mushki are considered one of the ancestors of the Georgians, but also became connected with the Sea Peoples who roved the Mediterranean Sea.
TirasJaphethThracians, Tuetons, Germans, Scandinavians, Anglo-Saxons, Juetes
——————–
Thracians, Goths, Jutes, Teutons (Germans).This name is usually connected with that of Thracians, an ancient nation first appearing in written records around 700 BC. It has also been associated with some of the Sea Peoples such as Tursha and Tyrsenoi, with the river Tiras, and sometimes with the Anatolian region of Troas, dating to the later 13th century BC.
CushHamSudan, Ethiopia
——————–
The Empire of Kush (Numbia or modern Sudan) to the south of Egypt is known from at least 1970 BC, but this name has also been associated by some with the Kassites who inhabited the Zagros area of Mesopotamia.
MizaimHamEgypt
——————–
Mizraim is a name for Upper and Lower Egypt and literally translates as Ta-Wy in Ancient Egyptian (“The Two Lands”).
PhutHamLybia
——————–
Ancient authorities are fairly universal in identifying Phut with the Libyans (Lebu and Pitu), the earliest neighbors of Egypt to the west. (More recent theories have tried to connect Phut with Phoenicia).
CannanHamHivites, Jebusites, Arvadites, Girgashites, Amorites, Arkites, Sinites, Hitties, Sidonians, Perizzites, Zemarites
——————–
The above group of nations and peoples  who primarily settled the Eastern shore of the Mediterranean in what is now called Israel.
ElamShemArabia
——————–
The Elamites (called themselves the Haltamit) and had an empire in what is now Luhistan (capital Susa)
AsshurShemAssyria
——————–
The Assyrians traced themselves to the god-ancestor Ashshur and the city he founded by that name on the Tigris..
ArphazadShemUr
——————–
He or his immediate descendants are credited in Jewish tradition with founding the city of Ur of the Chaldees on the south bank of the Euphrates, as well as being the ancestor of the Hebrews and the Arabs.
LudShemLydians
——————–
Most ancient authorities assign this name to the Lydians of Eastern Anatolia (Luddu in Assyrian insciptions from ca. 700 B.C.). This name may also be connected with the earlierLuwians who lived in approximately the same area.
AramShemArmenia, Mesopatamia, Syria
——————–
The Arameans were known in earliest times as Aram-Naharaim, or Hurrians, and were centered on the Balikh river in northwestern Mesopotamina (modern Syria). They settled in the city of Haran.



Table of Nations Descending From Noah’s Great Grandsons, etc.

NameFatherGrandfatherDescendents
AshkenazGomerJaphethScythians in Southern Ukraine.
RiphathGomerJaphethPaphlagonians (along the river Rhebas) on the Eastern Black Sea coast.
TogarmahGomerJaphethAncient Armenians in the South Caucasus, not modern Armenia.
ElishahJavanJaphethThe people of Elis in Greece, but not the Hellenes in general.  Modern northwestern Peloponnesos.
TarshishJavanJaphethTarsus in Anatolia or Tartessus in Spain depending on the scholar.
KittimJavanJaphethAncient Cypriots (whose ancient capital was Kittius in modern Cyprus).
DodanimJavanJaphethProdanim on the island of Rhodes.  (The people are also called Rodanim.)
SebaCushHamSabaeans in southern Yeman and Coastal Eritrea.
HavilahCushHamHuwaila and Kwahlans in northwest Yemen.
SabtahCushHamHadhramis (the ancient capital being Saubatha) in East Yemen.
RaamahCushHamRhammanitae (the capital being Regmah) in southern Oman.
ShebaRaamahCushSabaenas in Southern Yemen and Coastal Eritrea.
DedanRaamahCushPeople rom Dedan (now called El-Ula) in Eastern Yemen.
SabtechCushHamSabaeans (also called Sabaiticum Ostium) living around a harbor in Coastal Ethiopia.
LudimMizaimHamLebu in Eastern Libya.  (Ludim is usually considered a typographical error for Lubim, which referes to Lebu.)
AnamimMizaimHamBerber tribes of Cyrene in Western Libya.
LehabimMizaimHamUnknown.  His father is associated with Egypt.
NaphtuhimMizaimHamNoph.  (Noph, Memphis Egypt to the Greeks) is a corruption of Naptah.
ParthrusimMizaimHamThebans of Thebes.  (Pa-To_Ris Translated from Egyptian as southern).
CasluhimMizaimHamUnknown.  This father is associated with Egypt.
SidonCanaanHamSidon (Zidon) a Phoenician city in Lebanon.
HethCanaanHamHattians or Hittites (not both).  East central Anatolia if the Hattians, Syria if the Hittites.
JebusitesCanaanHamThe inhabitants of Jebus, the city latter called Jerusalem.  (The Jebusites lived in Jerusalem until they were conquered by King David.)
AmoritesCanaanHamThe Amorites lived in Biblical Jordan.
GirgasitesCanaanHamAn unknown people in north east Canaan.
HivitesCanaanHamAn unknown people in northern Canaan.
ArkitesCanaanHamPhoenicians in Arca.  South coastal Syria.
SinitesCanaanHamPhoenician from Sinai.
ArvaditesCanaanHamPhoenician from Arvad (now called Ruad.)
ZemaritesCanaanHamPhoenician fromSummar (also called Simrya) in what is today Israel.
HamathiesCanaanHamThe inhabitants of Hamath (Hamah) in northern Syria.
UzAramShemSomewhere north east of Canaan and probably south west of Jordan.  This was the home of Job.
HulAramShemInhaitants of Huleth, north of the Sea of Galilee.
GetherAramShemA people living south of Damascus.
MashAramShemEither the Mashu, a Phenician people living in modern Lebanon or the E-Mash-Mash a people from the main temple in Nineveh.
SalahArphaxadShemSalah was the father of Eber, for whom the Hebrews are named.

 

          Note: In Genesis 10 Shem is listed as being the father of Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram. Genesis 10 lists the sons of Aram, but only one son is listed for Arpahaxad and none are listed for Elam, Asshur, and Lud yet tradition indicates they were the fathers of numerous nations. Presumably this is because of the practice of the ancient Israelites of not recording information about “rivals” in the Bible.

Genesis 30 -The Tribes of Israel

Leah’s Children

  • Rueben
  • Simeon
  • Levi
  • Judah
    ———–
  • Issachar
  • Zebulun



Bilhah Children (Rachel’s maid)

  • Dan
  • Naptali


Zilpah Children (Leah’s maid)

  • Gad
  • Asher


Rachel Children

  • Joseph – Manasseh and Ephraim
  • Benjamin

When Ruben dishonored his father by committing adultery with his father’s concubine he lost the birthright. The birthright was then given to Joseph allowing the formation of an additional tribe. Hence we speak of the tribes of Ephriam and Manesseh.  (See the section above about the Law of the Primogenitor and the Double Portion.)


Midianites

Joseph was sold by his brothers to the Midianites, also called Ishmaelites in Genesis 37-39, who in turn sold him into slavery in Egypt. Although these terms are used interchanable in Genesis 37-39, they can also be applied to seperaate peoples The Medianites (apparently the first people to domesticate the camel) were descendants of Abraham through Midian, his son through Keturah, his second wife. The Ismaelites were descendants of Abraham though Hagar. It is likely these (and other) peoples intermarried causing the names of these peoples to be used interchanably. Just as today the term Arab is used to apply to all the desecents of Abraham through his sons Ismael, Medan, and Median.

The term Midianite probably identified a confederation of tribes that roamed far beyond their ancestral homeland in the northern Arabian desert. A usage that explains the biblical references to Midianites in Sinai, Canaan, the Jordan Valley, Moab, and Transjordan’s eastern desert.

Moses married Zipporah, a Midianite. He received the priesthood from Jethro, his father-in-law. During the exodus Jethro visited Moses, giving him vital counsel regarding the government and organization of the Israelites.

In spite of this, because of the alliance of the Kenites, a sub-tribe of the Midinaites (thought to have been ruled by Jethro) with the Moabites in the days of the Exodus, Moses ordered his people to treat the Midianites as enemies because of ther idolatry.


Genesis Bible Study Tool: Outline of Genesis

I. The Creation
A. God Creates the Universe. (Genesis 1-2.)
1. The denial of atheism, materialism, polytheism, pantheism, and agnosticism.
2. God is known by his works and by revelation.
3. Eloheim’s supreme power; he is distinct from his creations.
B. The Stages of Creation
1. The first four days: the earth is prepared for living creatures. The creation of light, firmament, dry land, and vegetation. The purpose of the sun, moon, etc. explained.
2. Fifth and sixth days: sentient life created.
a. Fifth day: sea animals and winged creatures created.
<b. Sixth day: beasts of the field and man—in the image of God—are created.
3. Seventh day: creation ends. God rests and institutes the Sabbath day.

II. Adediluvian Age
A. The Garden of Eden (Edenic Period in Genesis 2:15Genesis 2:15
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15 And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. the man: or, Adam  

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—3:24.)

1. Institution of marriage, family, and home.
2. Institution of labor.
3. Man given dominion over the earth and lower creatures.
4. Morality (right verses wrong) established.
a. The law given by commandment and obedience enjoined.
b. Free agency—freedom to choose destiny (consequence of actions)—given.
c. The temptation. Free agency allows man to resist or succumb to temptation.
d. The fall. Spiritual death (separation from God) and expulsion from his fellowship in the garden result from trangressing the law.
e. Plan of redemption explained. The promise of a Savior is given.
B. Man begins life in the terrestrial world. The lines of Cain, Abel and Seth. (Genesis 4-6.)
1. The law of sacrifice.
2. Cain slays Abel.
3. The line of Cain, from Enoch to Lamech.
4. The line of Seth, head of the Messianic line, from Enos to Noah.
5. Enoch walks with God, establishes Zion, and is translated together with his city.
6. Noah—father of Shem, Ham, and Japheth—commanded to build an ark due to the universal wickedness of mankind.

III. The Flood. (Genesis 7—8:19.)
A. Mankind condemned and punished as the world fully ripens in iniquity. (Those born are unable to distinguish right from wrong and choose good over evil.)
B. Mankind—together with the Messianic line and promise—are preserved through Noah and his family.

IV. The Flood to Abraham.
A. God’s covenant with Noah. (Genesis 8:20Genesis 8:20
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20 And Noah builded an altar unto the LORD; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.  

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—9:17. Noah is Gabriel who appears to Mary.)

B. The generations of Noah, the new progenitors of mankind. (Genesis 10.)
C. The land of, and life, in Shinar. (Genesis 11.)
1. Man lives together in unity.
2. The tower of Babel built. (An apostate priesthood and temple lead men astray.)
3. The languages confounded. Mankind disperses. Shemites remain in the East.
4. The genealogy of Shem. Arphaxad, the line that brings forth Abraham.

V. The Patriarchal Age.
A. Abraham to head the Messianic Nation. The Messianic line, descending from Seth through Shem, now requires a nation to preserve it and do God’s work. The Messianic nation to be separate from all other nations, to be provided with divine institutions, and to bring forth the Messiah, the “seed of the woman.”
B. The Abrahamic Covenant. (Genesis 11:27Genesis 11:27
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27 Now these are the generations of Terah: Terah begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran begat Lot.  

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—32.)

1. Abraham to leave Ur. (A calling: “Now the Lord hath said unto Abram…”)
2. The covenant: Promised Land, promised seed, and promised blessing to all nations.
3. Abraham’s great example of faith through obedience (see Hebrews 11:8Hebrews 11:8
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8 By faith Abraham, when he was called to go out into a place which he should after receive for an inheritance, obeyed; and he went out, not knowing whither he went.  

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).

4. The land of Canaan (land of sorrows)–the sea coast of Palestine and Jordan river valley.
C. Abraham’s life prior to the birth of Isaac. (Genesis 12:10Genesis 12:10
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10 And there was a famine in the land: and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; for the famine was grievous in the land.  

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—21:5)

1. Abraham and Lot in Shechem and Bethel. Altars for sacrifice built.
2. Abraham in Egypt. He goes to Egypt to escape the famine and is told to say his wife Sarah is his sister. He returns to the land of Canaan with riches.
3. Lot chooses to live in Sodom. Abraham lives in Hebron (one of the oldest cities in the world).
4. The invasion by Chedorlaomer of Babylon and his allies. Lot’s capture and subsequent rescue by Abraham. (Lot was the father of Amon and Moab. The Ammonites inhabited land east of Mount Gilead and the Moabites inhabited land east of the Dead Sea.)
5. Abraham pays tithes to Melchizedek and is blessed by him. The first Biblical reference to Jerusalem. (See also Psalms 110:4Psalms 110:4
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4 The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.  

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, Hebrews 5:6Hebrews 5:6
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6 As he saith also in another place, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.  

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; and Hebrews 7:1Hebrews 7:1
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7 1 For this Melchisedec, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and blessed him;  

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.)

6. Gen. 15. Abraham is justified by faith and promised an heir. Prophecy is given that his seed will sojourn in Egypt and return to the land of Canaan.
7. Gen 16. Abraham’s son Ishmael is born. Abraham mistakes Ishmael for his heir.
8. Gen 17. Abram’s name changed to Abraham. The Abraham covenant is expounded upon. The covenant with Abraham not to be confused with the Law of Moses and promises given to Moses (see Galatians 3:16-17Galatians 3:16-17
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16 Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ. 17 And this I say, that the covenant, that was confirmed before of God in Christ, the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul, that it should make the promise of none effect.  

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).

9. Abraham’s intercessory prayer and destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah.
D. Abraham and Isaac. (Genesis 21:9Genesis 21:9
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9 And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had born unto Abraham, mocking.  

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—25:1-10.)

1. Isaac born in Gerar, and is the promised heir to the covenant.
2. Hagar and Ishmael are cast out. A nation to come from the son of the bondswoman.
3. Covenant with Abimelech—“the Well of the Oath.”
4. Gen. 22. Abraham’s faith is tested. He proves willing to offer Isaac as a sacrifice. Isaac’s, who willing accepts his fate, has his life spared.
5. Death of Sarah. Cave of Machpelah.
6. Isaac not to marry a Canaaite. Marries Rebekah.
7. Abraham marries Keturah, who bares him many sons.
8. Abraham grows old and dies.
E. Jacob, Father of the House of Israel
1. Jacob in the house of Isaac. (Genesis 25—28:5.)
a. Esau sells Jacob his birthright.
b. Isaac’s blessing obtained by deceit.
c. Jacob leaves home. The night at Bethel. Renewal of the covenant.
2. In Padan-aram. (Genesis 28:6Genesis 28:6
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6 When Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob, and sent him away to Padanaram, to take him a wife from thence; and that as he blessed him he gave him a charge, saying, Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan;  

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—31:16.)

a. In the home of Laban
b. Jacob’s twelve sons:
1. Leah: Rueben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar and and Zebulun
2. Rachel: Joseph and Benjamin (born in Canaan)
3. Bilhah: Dan and Naptali
4. Zilhah: Gad and Asher
3. Jacob returns to Canaan. (Genesis 31:17Genesis 31:17
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17 Then Jacob rose up, and set his sons and his wives upon camels;  

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—45:28.)

a. Jacob called to leave Padan-aram and return to Canaan. The Mizpath covenant between Jacob and Laban.
b. Night at Peniel. Wrestling and blessing. Jacob’s name changed to Israel. Jacob and Esau.
c. In Hebron. The death of Isaac. The descendents of Esau, also called Edom, called Edomites inhabit Edom (also called Idumea) a mountainous land between the Dead Sea and Gulf of Akabah.
d. Joseph is sold into slavery in Egypt. Becomes second only to Pharoah.
(Genesis 42—50.)
1. Joseph recognizes and aids his brothers.
2. Israel in Goshen during the reign of the Hyksos kings.
3. Jacob deathbed prophecy regarding the ten tribes. The Messianic line to come through Judah. (Genesis 49:9-10Genesis 49:9-10
English: King James Version (1611) - KJV

9 Judah is a lion's whelp: from the prey, my son, thou art gone up: he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up? 10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.  

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.) The Shiloh Prophecy.

4. Death and burial of Jacob.
5. Joseph’s prophecy that his people would return to Canaan. His death, burial, and instructions regarding his body.

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